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Accueil Actualités Programme de développement pour l'après 2015 Activités du ROFAF relatives à l’après 2015 Dimension Genre dans la Position Commune de l'Afrique et les ODD: Une analyse comparative

Dimension Genre dans la Position Commune de l'Afrique et les ODD: Une analyse comparative

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INTRODUCTION

On 31 January 2014, African Heads of State and Government adopted the Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda through a participatory approach that involved stakeholders at the national, regional and continental levels among the public and private sectors, parliamentarians, civil society organizations (CSOs), including women and youth associations, and academia. Even though the CAP elaboration process tried to be inclusive, the final document was not much gender sensitive.

Women’s organizations in Africa who are engaged in the post 2015 process have drafted an advocacy document to push for gender equality and gender mainstreaming throughout the priority areas identified in CAP. They developed targets and indicators for each of the subthemes of the six pillars.

The CAP grouped Africa’s development priorities in six pillars and 27 targets (subthemes).

  1. Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth;
  2. Science, technology and innovation;
  3. People-centred development;
  4. Environmental sustainability natural resources management, and disaster risk management;
  5. Peace and security; and
  6. Finance and partnerships.

The Post 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) proposed by the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development (OWG) identifies 17 goals and 169 targets.

A comparative analysis between the SDGs provisions with those of the CAP reveals that the SDGs went farther in pushing for gender issues and women’s rights than the CAP.

I/ A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE COMMON AFRICAN POSITION (CAP) vs THE POST 2015 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs)

CAP Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth

Provisions under this pillar are covered by SDGs 2, 8, 9, 10, 14.  It focuses on:

1. (a) Inclusive growth that reduces inequality

1. (b) Sustainable agriculture, food self-sufficiency and nutrition

1. (c) Diversification, industrialization and value addition

1. (d) Developing the Services Sector including Internet access improvements& telecommunications strengthening

1. (e) Infrastructure development

This pillar does not specifically target people with disability, equal payment for work of equal value and encourage formalization, growth of small- and medium-sized enterprises (mainly led by women) including through access to financial services, and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation covered by SDGs 8 target 3, 4 & 5:

  • 8.3 promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises including through access to financial services
  • 8.4 improve progressively through 2030 global resource efficiency in consumption and production, and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production with developed countries taking the lead
  • 8.5 by 2030 achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

 

CAP Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

Provisions under this pillar are covered by SDGs 1, 2, 5, 8, 9 & 17 ; it focuses on:

2. (a) Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda, by improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies

2. (b) Building enabling environment for innovation

2. (c) Increasing support for research and development

2. (d) Optimal utilization of space and geospatial technologies

These provisions do not specifically target women, what SDG 5 target b does:

 

  • 5.b enhance the use of enabling technologies, in particular ICT, to promote women’s empowerment

 

CAP Pillar Three: People-centred development

Provisions under this pillar are covered by SDGs 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11 which focuses on:

3. (a) The eradication of poverty

Specifically targets people living in vulnerable situations including women, children, the elderly, youth, people with disabilities, rural populations, displaced persons and migrants

And openly commit to ensure that no person – regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography, disability, race or other status – is denied universal human rights and basic economic opportunities.

 

3. (b) Education and human capital development

Commits to

  • improves the quality of education and training by: investing in learning infrastructures; increasing the use of ICT; ensuring higher completion rates; promoting pre-schooling, integrated adult education and tertiary education; and improving the quality and conditions of service of educators and trainers.
  • improve and sustain progress on gender parity at all levels of education, with special emphasis on secondary and tertiary education;
  • creating a positive environment for girls and boys at school;
  • increasing the representation of female teachers, especially in science and technology;
  • development of entrepreneurship skills, life skills and vocational and technical training to respond to labour market demands;
  • introduction of age-appropriate and comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education for all.

 

SDG 4 goes beyond these provisions and include:

-        access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education (4.2.)

-        equal access for all women and men to affordable quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university (4.3.)

-        equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and children in vulnerable situations (4.5.)

 

3. (c) Universal and equitable access to quality healthcare

Includes:

  • universal and equitable access to quality healthcare, including universal access to comprehensive sexual reproductive health and reproductive rights (e.g. family planning); improving health systems and health financing, and medical infrastructure, the local manufacturing of health equipment, (e.g. commitment to the Abuja Declaration); and setting up monitoring and evaluation, and quality assurance systems.

 

SDG 3 went beyond this, promotes well-being and includes :

  • reducing pre-mature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination
  • prevention and treatment of substance abuse
  • halving global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
  • access to quality essential health care services, and access to safe, effective, quality, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines

 

3. (d) Gender equality and women’s empowerment

Covers areas of:

  • enhancing women’s occupational mobility and eliminating gender-based wage inequality;
  • ensuring their access to, and ownership of, land and other productive assets, credit and extension services and training;
  • eradicating all forms of violence against women and children, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) and early marriage; and
  • eliminating gender-based discrimination in political, economic and public decision-making processes.
  • adequate resources provision for capacity building and to strengthen women’s voices, and ensure full and equal participation of women in all decision-making bodies including in conflict prevention and resolution, mediation and peace-building efforts, and in the rebuilding of post-conflict societies

 

3. (e) Leveraging population dynamics for development

Includes :

  • improving space planning and evidence-based urban policies, and provide equitable, quality services for all age groups,
  • ensure the provision and implementation of adequate public policies in education and health services; create jobs, especially for youth; strengthen the linkages between migration and development; support the elderly; promote human capital development within the context of regional integration;
  • develop innovative plans that respond to population dynamics
  • ensure equal access to quality and affordable healthcare and social services for all;
  • ensure equity and access to services by making them adequately and geographically available in both urban and rural areas;
  • promote good governance; and
  • eliminate human trafficking, especially youth, particularly girls.

 

3. (f) Harnessing Africa’s youthful population

Includes putting in place of policies and strategies that:

  • strengthen youth’s entrepreneurial skills and capacity;
  • increase youth’s access to financial services;
  • promote decent and commensurate jobs;
  • promote youth’s participation in decision-making processes;

 

3. (g) Improving access to sustainable human settlements

Includes:

  • increasing decent and affordable housing;
  • improving sanitation and hygiene services,
  • promoting access to social and economic amenities in human settlements and increasing the efficiency of delivery and use of physical facilities and amenities, including waste management, transportation and energy.

 

And SPECIFICALLY INCLUDE PROVISIONS to “ensure equal access to quality and affordable healthcare and social services for all; ensure equity and access to services by making them adequately and geographically available in both urban and rural areas; … and eliminate human trafficking, particularly girls trafficking

But this target does not include any elements for the prohibition and elimination of child labour and forced labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and the promotion of safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, particularly women migrants covered by SDGs 8 target 7 & 8:

  • 8.7 take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, eradicate forced labour, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms including recruitment and use of child so diers
  • 8.8 protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments of all workers, including migrant workers, particularly women migrants, and those in precarious employment

CAP Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management

Are covered by SDGs 1, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15 which focuses on:

4. (a) Improving natural resource and biodiversity management

4. (b) Enhancing access to Safe Water for All

4. (c) Responding effectively to climate change

4. (d) Addressing desertification, land degradation, soil erosion, flooding and drought

4. (e) Natural disaster risk reduction and management

 

This pillar specifically calls on the full implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the promotion of renewable energies

It does not explicitly includes elements to improve education and awareness raising on climate change covered by SDG 13.3

  • 13.3 improve education, awareness raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning

It does not include any elements on the conservation and sustainable use the oceans, seas and marine resources including the reduction of marine pollution covered by targets 1 to 3 of SDG 14.

It does not include any elements on SANITATION FOR ALL covered by SDGs 6 target 2:

  • SDG 6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

However, in Pillar Three: People-centred development 3.g. Improving access to sustainable human settlements, a clear mention is made about improving sanitation and hygiene services, in human settlements and increasing the efficiency of delivery and use of physical facilities and amenities, including waste management, transportation and energy

CAP Pillar Five: Peace and Security

Covered by SDG 16 targets 2, 3, 4, which focuses on:

5. (a) Addressing the root causes of conflict

5. (b) Preventing the outbreak of armed conflicts

DO NOT make specific provision to :

-        ensure equal access to justice for all

-        illicit financial and arms flows and proliferation and circulation of small arms

CAP Pillar Six: Finance and Partnerships

This pillar is covered by SDG 17, and focuses on:

6. A. (a) Improving domestic resource mobilization

6. A. (b) Maximizing innovative financing

6. A. (c) Implementing existing commitments and promoting quality and predictability of external financing

6. B. (a) Promoting mutually beneficial partnerships

6. B. (b) Strengthening partnerships for trade

6. B. (c) Establish partnerships for managing global commons (environmental commons, cross-border and communicable diseases, multilateral trading system, international financial architecture, global knowledge for development system)


Table 1: Alignment of Post 2015 SDGs and targets with CAP pillars and targets

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda

Proposed goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Pillar Three: People-centred development

(a) The eradication of poverty
38. This will require the empowerment of all people, including those living in vulnerable situations (including women, children, the elderly, youth, people with disabilities, rural populations, displaced persons and migrants), through inclusive growth that creates decent jobs, improved access to social protection and through the promotion of measures that ensure that no individual remains below the poverty line. In this regard, we commit to ensure that no person –
regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography, disability, race or other status – is denied universal human rights and basic economic opportunities.

1.1 by 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth
1. a. Inclusive growth that reduces inequality

21. We DEDICATE ourselves to accelerated, stable and sustained inclusive economic growth that: creates decent and productive employment that rapidly reduces inequality; nurtures sustainable social protection programmes; facilitates economic diversification; strengthens resilience to external shocks; and fosters rapid inclusive, resilient and sustainable socio-economic development leading to eradication of poverty.

1.2 by 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

1.3 implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

1.4 by 2030 ensure that all men and women, particularly the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services including microfinance

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management 4.a. Improving natural resource and biodiversity management
54. Achieving this objective will require:
(i) Promoting sustainable utilization of the continent’s natural resources and biodiversity, including land and water for the continent’s economic and social transformation. This can be achieved by combating the depletion and degradation of Africa’s natural resource base and fostering the conservation and recovery of African biodiversity, which represents an inestimable heritage, through improved control of access to the genetic resources of the continent;
(ii) Ensuring that the use of the natural resources and biodiversity will financially and economically benefit the countries that possess them and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use, with consideration for both present and future generations; and

(iii) Promoting value addition, pertinent R&D, and technological innovations for sustainably
harnessing the natural resource base and biodiversity by developing joint ventures and
private- public- partnerships to facilitate the establishment of industries in Africa.

1.5 by 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management

4.e. Natural disaster risk reduction and management

63. We must strengthen Africa’s resilience to natural disasters by: building capacities for adequately anticipating and responding to disasters and reducing their impact on people living in vulnerable situations; implementing the African Solidarity Initiative, which targets countries in difficult situations; developing and supporting early warning systems; and increasing support for loss and damage incurred through climate disasters.

1.a. ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular LDCs, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

 

1.b create sound policy frameworks, at national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies to support accelerated investments in poverty eradication actions

 

Proposed goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth
(b) Sustainable agriculture, food self-sufficiency and nutrition

22. To address this development priority, we RESOLVE to:
(i) Enhance the production, storage, transportation, availability, accessibility, utilization, safety and quality of food.
(ii) Improve the productivity of smallholder agriculture and livestock through extension of technological support, small-scale irrigation schemes, rural infrastructure, credit and social services.
(iii) Support modernization and diversification of agricultural sectors through: private sector participation in agriculture; agri-business development; improved agroindustry linkages; providing special support to integrate women into agri-business value chains; equitable access to land; and sustainable land management practices, including on our arable lands, for present and future generations.
(iv) Promote agricultural marketing and information flows by establishing national and regional information centres and cooperation mechanisms in agriculture, food and nutrition security.
(v) Adopt sustainable agricultural, ocean and freshwater fishery practices and rebuild
depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels.
(vi) Strengthen resilience to external and climate shocks, such as droughts, floods, commodity price volatility, food shortages and export restrictions, particularly on staple foods.
(vii) Urgently call for multilateral partnerships aimed at food loss reduction, resilience to commodity price fluctuations, and addressing food shortages and export restrictions during crises.

2.1 by 2030 end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

2.2 by 2030 end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving by 2025 the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under five years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons

2.3 by 2030 double the agricultural productivity and the incomes of small-scale food producers, particularly women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets, and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

2.4 by 2030 ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality

2.5 by 2020 maintain genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as internationally agreed

2.a increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock gene banks to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular in least developed countries

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth

1.e. Infrastructure development

26. Accelerating Africa’s infrastructural development is pivotal to connect African people, countries and economies as well as to help drive social, cultural and economic development.

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the

science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

2.c. Increasing support for research and development
31. This requires: promoting greater links among academia, industry, government and civil society organizations with respect to their roles in R&D; marketing and commercialization of R&D; scaling up investments in science and technology parks; and encouraging action-oriented research at all levels of the education and training system.

2.b. correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

 

2.c. adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives, and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility

 

Proposed goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Pillar Three: People-centred development
3.c. Universal and equitable access to quality healthcare

42. We must improve the health status of vulnerable people such as mothers, newborns, children, youth, the unemployed, the elderly and people with disabilities by: reducing the incidence of communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases (e.g. mental health) and emerging diseases; ending the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria; reducing malnutrition; and improving hygiene and sanitation. This can be achieved by: ensuring universal and equitable access to quality healthcare, including universal access to comprehensive sexual reproductive health and reproductive rights (e.g. family planning); improving health systems and health financing, and medical infrastructure, the local manufacturing of health equipment, (e.g. commitment to the Abuja Declaration); and setting up monitoring and evaluation, and quality assurance systems.

3.1 by 2030 reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

3.2 by 2030 end preventable deaths of newborns and under-five children

3.3 by 2030 end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases

3.4 by 2030 reduce by one-third pre-mature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) through prevention and treatment, and promote mental health and wellbeing

3.5 strengthen prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol

3.6 by 2020 halve global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

3.7 by 2030 ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes

3.8 achieve universal health coverage (UHC), including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health care services, and access to safe, effective, quality, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all

3.9 by 2030 substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination

Proposed goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

Pillar Three: People-centred development
3.b. Education and human capital development
39. We must achieve excellence in human resources capacity development through an improvement in the quality of education and training by: investing in learning infrastructures; increasing the use of ICT; ensuring higher completion rates; promoting pre-schooling, integrated adult education and tertiary education; and improving the quality and conditions of service of educators and trainers.
40. Enhancing equity will require: improving and sustaining progress on gender parity at all levels of education, with special emphasis on secondary and tertiary education; creating a positive environment for girls and boys at school; increasing the representation of female teachers, especially in science and technology; and eliminating human trafficking and child labour, thus allowing children to benefit from educational facilities for their full development.
41. In order to strengthen the school curriculum, it must include: basic rights and responsibilities of citizens; quality education beyond primary schooling; the development of entrepreneurship skills, life skills and vocational and technical training to respond to labour market demands; the provision of information and technology skills; and the introduction of age-appropriate and comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education for all.
3.f Harnessing Africa’s youthful population
48. To ensure that Africa’s youth bulge is translated into demographic dividend, we must put in place policies and strategies that: strengthen entrepreneurial skills and capacity; increase youth’s access to financial services; promote decent and commensurate jobs; increase access to business advisory services and credit facilities; promote participation in decision-making processes; and support the African Union initiative to create a continental framework on demographic dividends.

4.1 by 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes

4.2 by 2030 ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

4.3 by 2030 ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

4.4 by 2030, increase by x% the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

4.5 by 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and children in vulnerable situations

4.6 by 2030 ensure that all youth and at least x% of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

4.7 by 2030 ensure all learners acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including among others through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

Proposed goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Pillar Three: People-centred development

3.d. Gender equality and women’s empowerment


43. This will require: enhancing women’s occupational mobility and eliminating gender-based wage inequality; ensuring their access to, and ownership of, land and other productive assets, credit and extension services and training; eradicating all forms of violence against women and children, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) and early marriage; and eliminating gender-based discrimination in political, economic and public decision-making processes.

44. We must provide adequate resources to strengthen women’s voices, and ensure full and equal participation of women in all decision-making bodies at the highest levels of government and in the governance structures of international organizations, including by eliminating gender stereotyping in appointments and promotions, and building women’s productive capacities as agents of change.
45. The crucial role of women in conflict prevention and resolution, mediation and peace-building efforts, and in the rebuilding of post-conflict societies must be supported by strengthening their capacities, including leadership skills, and creating legal frameworks that protect their engagement in political and economic decision making.

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the

science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

5.1 end all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

5.2 eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

5.3 eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations

5.4 recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies, and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

5.5 ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic, and public life

5.6 ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

5.a undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources in accordance with national laws

5.b enhance the use of enabling technologies, in particular ICT, to promote women’s empowerment

5.c adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management

4.b. Enhancing access to Safe Water for All
55. To this end, we will ensure universal and reliable access to safe water in a sustainable manner, especially access to safe drinking water in urban and rural areas by: enhancing the protection and judicious management of water resources to safeguard water quality, and assurance of access to these resources for all uses; ensuring effective conservation and management of catchments areas; minimizing wastewater discharges; and improving wastewater and water quality management systems as well as sanitation and hygiene services in rural and urban areas.

6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally

6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

Proposed goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management
4.c. Responding effectively to climate change

57. We will reduce deforestation, desertification and pollution, promote reforestation and reduce soil erosion; improve land management; promote renewable energies; promote efficiency of energy production, consumption and recycle; and effectively implement the Kyoto Protocol.

7.1 by 2030 ensure universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy services

7.2 increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030

7.3 double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030

Proposed goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth
1.a. Inclusive growth that reduces inequality
21. We DEDICATE ourselves to accelerated, stable and sustained inclusive economic growth that: creates decent and productive employment that rapidly reduces inequality; nurtures sustainable social protection programmes; facilitates economic diversification; strengthens resilience to external shocks; and fosters rapid inclusive, resilient and sustainable socio-economic development leading to eradication of poverty.
1.d. Developing the Services Sector
24. Developing the service sector is vital for generating decent employment and optimizing and upgrading our industrial structures and other important sectors of African economy. Noting the important role that the service sector can play in facilitating economic transformation and recognizing the weak linkages between the services sector and other sectors of the economy
Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation
2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda
29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

2.b. Building enabling environment for innovation
30. This will require strengthening the financial and regulatory environment to support an innovation culture by: strengthening and creating, where needed, African property rights institutions; protecting intellectual property and industrial rights; increasing funding for science and technology research and innovation; and fostering collaboration among African countries on science and technology for development.

8.1 sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances, and in particular at least 7% per annum GDP growth in the least-developed countries

8.2 achieve higher levels of productivity of economies through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high value added and labour-intensive sectors

8.3 promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises including through access to financial services

8.4 improve progressively through 2030 global resource efficiency in consumption and production, and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production with developed countries taking the lead

8.5 by 2030 achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

8.6 by 2020 substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

Pillar Three: People-centred development

3.f Harnessing Africa’s youthful population

48. To ensure that Africa’s youth bulge is translated into demographic dividend, we must put in place policies and strategies that: strengthen entrepreneurial skills and capacity; increase youth’s access to financial services; promote decent and commensurate jobs; increase access to business advisory services and credit facilities; promote participation in decision-making processes; and support the African Union initiative to create a continental framework on demographic dividends.

8.7 take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, eradicate forced labour, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms including recruitment and use of child soldiers

8.8 protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments of all workers, including migrant workers, particularly women migrants, and those in precarious employment

8.9 by 2030 devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism which creates jobs, promotes local culture and products

8.10 strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage to expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all

8.a increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, particularly LDCs, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for LDCs

8.b by 2020 develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the ILO Global Jobs Pact

Proposed goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth
1.c. Diversification, industrialization and value addition

23. In achieving this, we PLEDGE to:
(i) Develop the private sector and strengthen the productive capacity of the informal sector to ensure a more active contribution to industrialization and value-addition;
(ii) Reallocate and reinvest wealth generated from extractive and other primary commodity sectors into sectors that prioritize value-addition, promote job-rich growth and ensure fair taxation;
(iii) Promote processing of primary commodities by developing national value chains across sectors and designing and enforcing national content and beneficiation policies in the extractive and primary commodity producing sectors of the economy;
(iv) Advocate the Blue/Ocean Economy as well as sustainable exploitation of marine resources in order to make the oceanic industry a solid and viable pillar of our economies.
1.d. Developing the Services Sector
25. (i) Improve linkages between the services and real sectors, inter alia, through strengthened support to the agricultural and industrial sectors, improved coverage of broadband Internet services, and strengthened telecommunications as backbones of the service sector.
1.e. Infrastructure development
26. Accelerating Africa’s infrastructural development is pivotal to connect African people, countries and economies as well as to help drive social, cultural and economic development. In this regard, we are DETERMINED to:
(i) Develop and maintain reliable, sustainable, environmentally friendly and affordable infrastructure in both rural and urban areas with a focus on land, water and air transport and storage facilities, clean water and sanitation, energy, waste management and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT);
(ii) Implement infrastructure projects that facilitate intra-African trade and regional and continental integration including, with the assistance of the international community, enhancing research and technological development and the provision of adequate financial resources; and
(iii) Promote the delivery of infrastructure programmes to generate local jobs, strengthen domestic skills and enterprise development, as well as enhance technological capability.
Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the

science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

2.b. Building enabling environment for innovation
30. This will require strengthening the financial and regulatory environment to support an innovation culture by: strengthening and creating, where needed, African property rights institutions; protecting intellectual property and industrial rights; increasing funding for science and technology research and innovation; and fostering collaboration among African countries on science and technology for development.

9.1 develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.2 promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and by 2030 raise significantly industry’s share of employment and GDP in line with national circumstances, and double its share in LDCs

9.3 increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, particularly in developing countries, to financial services including affordable credit and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4 by 2030 upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5 enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, particularly developing countries, including by 2030 encouraging innovation and increasing the number of R&D workers per one million people by x% and public and private R&D spending

Proposed goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth
1.a. Inclusive growth that reduces inequality
21. We DEDICATE ourselves to accelerated, stable and sustained inclusive economic growth that: creates decent and productive employment that rapidly reduces inequality; nurtures sustainable social protection programmes; facilitates economic diversification; strengthens resilience to external shocks; and fosters rapid inclusive, resilient and sustainable socio-economic development leading to eradication of poverty.
Pillar Three: People-centred development
3.e. Leveraging population dynamics for development
46. We must improve space planning and evidence-based urban policies, and provide equitable, quality services for all age groups, supported by a monitoring and regulatory framework. This will be achieved through public and private partnerships, the strengthening of municipal revenue generation and collaboration between municipalities, scholars, ministries and civil society.
47. We must ensure the provision and implementation of adequate public policies in education and health services; create jobs, especially for youth; strengthen the linkages between migration and development; support the elderly; promote human capital development within the context of regional integration; develop innovative plans that respond to population dynamics and incorporate them into the national planning frameworks; ensure equal access to quality and affordable healthcare and social services for all; ensure equity and access to services by making them adequately and geographically available in both urban and rural areas; promote good governance; and eliminate human trafficking, especially youth, particularly girls

10.1 by 2030 progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40% of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 by 2030 empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including through eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and actions in this regard

10.4 adopt policies especially fiscal, wage, and social protection policies and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 improve regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen implementation of such regulations

10.6 ensure enhanced representation and voice of developing countries in decision making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

Proposed goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Pillar Three: People-centred development
3.g. Improving access to sustainable human settlements

49. We are cognizant of the rapid urbanization rates in Africa and the importance of having the necessary infrastructures and amenities for an improved quality of life. We are therefore committed to expanding urban infrastructures and developing a planned approach to rapid urbanization and the emergence of new cities, as well as promoting urban and rural planning.
This includes increasing decent and affordable housing; improving sanitation and hygiene services, promoting access to social and economic amenities in human settlements and increasing the efficiency of delivery and use of physical facilities and amenities, including waste management, transportation and energy.

11.1 by 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums

11.2 by 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

11.3 by 2030 enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacities for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

11.4 strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.5 by 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by y% the economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management

4.e. Natural disaster risk reduction and management

63. We must strengthen Africa’s resilience to natural disasters by: building capacities for adequately anticipating and responding to disasters and reducing their impact on people living in vulnerable situations; implementing the African Solidarity Initiative, which targets countries in difficult situations; developing and supporting early warning systems; and increasing support for loss and damage incurred through climate disasters.

11.6 by 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality, municipal and other waste management

11.7 by 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, particularly for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

Pillar Three: People-centred development
3.g. Improving access to sustainable human settlements

49. We are cognizant of the rapid urbanization rates in Africa and the importance of having the necessary infrastructures and amenities for an improved quality of life. We are therefore committed to expanding urban infrastructures and developing a planned approach to rapid urbanization and the emergence of new cities, as well as promoting urban and rural planning.
This includes increasing decent and affordable housing; improving sanitation and hygiene services, promoting access to social and economic amenities in human settlements and increasing the efficiency of delivery and use of physical facilities and amenities, including waste management, transportation and energy.

Proposed goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

 

12.1 implement the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on sustainable consumption and production (10YFP), all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

 

12.2 by 2030 achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management                                                                     
4.a. Improving natural resource and biodiversity management

54. Achieving this objective will require:
(i) Promoting sustainable utilization of the continent’s natural resources and biodiversity, including land and water for the continent’s economic and social transformation. This can be achieved by combating the depletion and degradation of Africa’s natural resource base and fostering the conservation and recovery of African biodiversity, which represents an inestimable heritage, through improved control of access to the genetic resources of the continent;
(ii) Ensuring that the use of the natural resources and biodiversity will financially and economically benefit the countries that possess them and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use, with consideration for both present and future generations; and

(iii) Promoting value addition, pertinent R&D, and technological innovations for sustainably harnessing the natural resource base and biodiversity by developing joint ventures and private- public- partnerships to facilitate the establishment of industries in Africa.

12.3 by 2030 halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses

12.4 by 2020 achieve environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle in accordance with agreed international frameworks and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

12.5 by 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse

12.6 encourage companies, especially large and trans-national companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7 promote public procurement practices that are sustainable in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8 by 2030 ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

Proposed goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management
4.c. Responding effectively to climate change

56. While Africa is not responsible for the pollution and the factors causing climate change, it stands to suffer the most, the African leadership is poised to cooperate fully along the lines of the Rio+20 outcome.
57. We will reduce deforestation, desertification and pollution, promote reforestation and reduce soil erosion; improve land management; promote renewable energies; promote efficiency of energy production, consumption and recycle; and effectively implement the Kyoto Protocol.
58. Recognizing that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our times, we emphasize our deep concern with the vulnerability of developing countries, in particular in Africa, to the adverse impacts of climate change, and also recognize that adaptation to the phenomenon represents an immediate and urgent global priority.
59. We urge developed country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to fully implement their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol in order to bridge the gap between the aggregate efforts of mitigation pledges and aggregate emission pathways consistent with having a likely change of holding global average temperature rise below 2 degrees or 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels.
60. We call upon developed countries to provide sufficient and predictable financing to developing countries, mainly through effective use of the Green Climate Fund with US$100 billion per year   
4.e. Natural disaster risk reduction and management
63. We must strengthen Africa’s resilience to natural disasters by: building capacities for adequately anticipating and responding to disasters and reducing their impact on people living in vulnerable situations; implementing the African Solidarity Initiative, which targets countries in difficult situations; developing and supporting early warning systems; and increasing support for loss and damage incurred through climate disasters

13.1 strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

13.2 integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning

13.3 improve education, awareness raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning

13.a implement the commitment undertaken by developed country Parties to the UNFCCC to a goal of mobilizing jointly USD100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacities for effective climate change related planning and management, in LDCs, including focusing on women, youth, local and marginalized communities

Proposed goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

 

14.1 by 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, particularly from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

 

14.2 by 2020, sustainably manage, and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience and take action for their restoration, to achieve healthy and productive oceans

 

14.3 minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

 

14.4 by 2020, effectively regulate harvesting, and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

Pillar One: Structural economic transformation and inclusive growth
(b) Sustainable agriculture, food self-sufficiency and nutrition

(v) Adopt sustainable agricultural, ocean and freshwater fishery practices and rebuild depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels.

14.5 by 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on best available scientific information

14.6 by 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, and eliminate subsidies that contribute to IUU fishing, and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the WTO fisheries subsidies negotiation [1]*

14.7 by 2030 increase the economic benefits to SIDS and LDCs from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

Proposed goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and disaster risk management                                                                    
4.a. Improving natural resource and biodiversity management
54. Achieving this objective will require:
(i) Promoting sustainable utilization of the continent’s natural resources and biodiversity, including land and water for the continent’s economic and social transformation. This can be achieved by combating the depletion and degradation of Africa’s natural resource base and fostering the conservation and recovery of African biodiversity, which represents an inestimable heritage, through improved control of access to the genetic resources of the continent;
(ii) Ensuring that the use of the natural resources and biodiversity will financially and economically benefit the countries that possess them and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use, with consideration for both present and future generations; and

(iii) Promoting value addition, pertinent R&D, and technological innovations for sustainably harnessing the natural resource base and biodiversity by developing joint ventures and private- public- partnerships to facilitate the establishment of industries in Africa.
4.d. Addressing desertification, land degradation, soil erosion, flooding and drought
61. We are conscious that desertification, land degradation, soil erosion, flooding and drought are challenges of a global dimension and continue to pose a serious threat to the sustainable development of all countries, in particular in Africa, as recognized in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). 
62. There is an urgent need to reverse land degradation, soil erosion and desertification. This should act as a catalyst for adequate support, including by mobilizing predictable, appropriate and timely financial resources in order to enable developing countries especially in Africa to face these challenges.

15.1 by 2020 ensure conservation , restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

15.2 by 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests, and increase afforestation and reforestation by x% globally

15.3 by 2020, combat desertification, and restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation neutral world

15.4 by 2030 ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, to enhance their capacity to provide benefits which are essential for sustainable development

15.5 take urgent and significant action to reduce degradation of natural habitat, halt the loss of biodiversity, and by 2020 protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

15.6 ensure fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, and promote appropriate access to genetic resources

15.7 take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna, and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

15.8 by 2020 introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems, and control or eradicate the priority species

15.9 by 2020, integrate ecosystems and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes and poverty reduction strategies, and accounts

Proposed Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Pillar Five: Peace and Security
(a) Addressing the root causes of conflict
66. To address this priority, we must: tackle economic and social inequalities and exclusion;
strengthen good and inclusive governance; fight against all forms of discrimination; and forge
unity in diversity through democratic practices and mechanisms at the local, national and
continental levels.
(b) Preventing the outbreak of armed conflicts
67. We must take measures to prevent the outbreak of armed conflicts by: strengthening crossborder
cooperation for the resolution of disputes and the promotion of cross-border security; implementing comprehensive, post-conflict reconstruction programmes, including the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), in countries emerging from conflict through effective partnership at regional and continental levels; supporting domestic financing for conflict resolution and stabilization; and promoting the use of mediators for conflict resolution, including traditional conflict resolution mechanisms.

16.1 significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

16.2 end abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence and torture against children

16.3 promote the rule of law at the national and international levels, and ensure equal access to justice for all

16.4 by 2030 significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime

16.5 substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all its forms

16.6 develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

16.7 ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

16.8 broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

16.9 by 2030 provide legal identity for all including birth registration

16.10 ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

Proposed goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development


Finance

Pillar Six: Finance and Partnerships                                                                                                                                     A. Finance
(a) Improving domestic resource mobilization
72. We must improve domestic resource mobilization by: ensuring financial deepening and
inclusion (e.g. domestic savings and microfinance) and strengthening tax structures, coverage
and administration; carrying out fiscal reforms; encouraging public private partnerships; and
deepening capital markets.
73. It is imperative to curtail illicit financial flows and fight corruption in a way that ensures the
efficient and effective use of resources and domestic long-term financing, such as insurance,
pension schemes and capital market instruments.
(b) Maximizing innovative financing
74. To promote and enhance the efficiency of innovative financing mechanisms, we must: develop
mechanisms to harness and invest remittances; reduce remittance transfer costs and enhance
their effective management; and strengthen long-term, non-traditional financing mechanisms.
(c) Implementing existing commitments and promoting quality and predictability of
external financing

75. The global commitments on financing development have not been fully met, which has been
one of the reasons among others that several of the MDGs are not likely to be achieved by 2015
in many African countries. We therefore call upon development partners to fulfill their promises
and commitments in the spirit of the Monterrey Consensus and G8 Gleneagles Summit. This
will restore trust, confidence and mutual respect in global partnerships.
76. Enhancing the quality and predictability of external financing will require: encouraging reinvestment of the proceeds from foreign direct investment; promoting conducive policies to encourage capital in-flight; holding external partners accountable for their commitments including allocation of 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) to international development; encouraging official development assistance (ODA) in short, medium and longterm development; mobilizing external, non-traditional sources of financing, including from philanthropists and emerging partners; facilitating access to various global financing mechanisms without conditionalities, such as the Education For All-Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) and Climate Finance; and accelerating the implementation of the global commitment to address issues of illicit financial flows. We urge an expeditious transition to a development-friendly, international financial architecture.

17.1 strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

17.2 developed countries to implement fully their ODA commitments, including to provide 0.7% of GNI in ODA to developing countries of which 0.15-0.20% to least-developed countries

17.3 mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

17.4 assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries (HIPC) to reduce debt distress

17.5 adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for LDCs

Technology


17.6 enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation, and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, particularly at UN level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism when agreed

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the

science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

2.b. Building enabling environment for innovation
30. This will require strengthening the financial and regulatory environment to support an innovation culture by: strengthening and creating, where needed, African property rights institutions; protecting intellectual property and industrial rights; increasing funding for science and technology research and innovation; and fostering collaboration among African countries on science and technology for development.

17.7 promote development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the

science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

Pillar Four: Environmental sustainability, natural resources management and
disaster risk management

17.8 fully operationalize the Technology Bank and STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) capacity building mechanism for LDCs by 2017, and enhance the use of enabling technologies in particular ICT

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda
29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown
technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

2.b. Building enabling environment for innovation
30. This will require strengthening the financial and regulatory environment to support an innovation culture by: strengthening and creating, where needed, African property rights institutions; protecting intellectual property and industrial rights; increasing funding for science and technology research and innovation; and fostering collaboration among African countries on science and technology for development.

Capacity building

 

17.9 enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South, and triangular cooperation

IV. Enabling Implementation

Trade

Pillar Six: Finance and Partnerships                                                                                                                                                    B. Partnerships
(a) Promoting mutually beneficial partnerships
79. Fair and equitable partnerships will require: strengthening ownership, coherence and alignment
of international support with national and regional priorities; working with partners to develop financing frameworks that take into account Africa’s specific characteristics and priorities; promoting public-private partnerships; strengthening South-South, North-South, triangular partnerships and Diaspora cooperation; enhancing the involvement of private sector and civil
society stakeholders to ensure better ownership, implementation and accountability; supporting
intra-African cooperation including solidarity; supporting countries in special situations, namely
low-income, landlocked, small island and post-conflict countries; ensuring that the global governance architecture promotes ownership, reliability, equality of states, leadership and accountability; promoting partnerships for international peace and security; and promoting autonomy and independence of countries to advance alternative policies for development.
(b) Strengthening partnerships for trade
80. We must accelerate regional integration including by boosting intra-African trade and enhancing
Africa’s participation in the global supply chains systems.
81. We reaffirm the critical role that an open, universal, rules-based, non-discriminatory and
equitable multilateral trading and financial system as well as meaningful trade liberalization can play in stimulating economic growth and development worldwide, thereby benefitting African countries at all stages of development as they advance towards sustainable development. In this context, the post-2015 Development Agenda should urgently address a set of important issues such as, inter alia, trade-distorting subsidies and trade in environmental goods and services.
82. We urge the members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to redouble their efforts to
achieve an ambitious, balanced and development-oriented conclusion to the Doha Round while
respecting the principles of transparency, inclusiveness and consensual decision-making. These efforts aim to strengthen the multilateral trading system and promote trade initiatives (including Aid for Trade) in order to address key developmental concerns of the poorest and most vulnerable states, including countries in special situations.
83. We wish to reaffirm our full solidarity with all African countries in the process of accession to
the WTO and urge all WTO members to facilitate and accelerate the accession in line with their level of development and the contours of the current WTO rules. We insist that acceding countries should not be asked to make commitments that go beyond their level of development and current WTO rules. In this context, the principle of Special and Differential Treatment and non-reciprocity should be applied. These processes should be accelerated and carried out
without political impediment.
84. WTO members, the WTO Secretariat and relevant international organizations must provide technical assistance and capacity building prior to, during, and in the follow-up to the accession process in line with countries’ needs and development priorities.
(c) Establish partnerships for managing global commons
85. The experience from implementing the MDGs shows that Africa has not capitalized on the benefits of global commons including trade, finance and climate change, among others. We therefore believe in the need for sustainable management of global commons, which are important for development.
86. The international community must collectively address the sustainable management of global commons in the post-2015 Development Agenda. In this regard, we identify five areas of global commons that are vital to accelerating Africa’s development priorities: (i) creating and implementing strategies for managing environmental commons such as the prevention of climate change, climate change adaptation and the promotion of biodiversity; (ii) preventing and managing cross-border and communicable diseases (including HIV&AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and avian influenza); (iii) promoting a fair, predictable, non-discriminatory and rule-based multilateral trading system including the completion of the Doha Round; (iv) ensuring international financial architecture that promotes access to concessional development finance, penalizes illicit financial flows, strengthens early warning systems for global financial fragility, and deepens responsive financial risk management; and (v) promoting a global knowledge for development system that encourages building, documenting and sharing good practices on pertinent development issues.

17.10 promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the WTO including through the conclusion of negotiations within its Doha Development Agenda

17.11 increase significantly the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the LDC share of global exports by 2020

17.12 realize timely implementation of duty-free, quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries consistent with WTO decisions, including through ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from LDCs are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

17.13 enhance global macroeconomic stability including through policy coordination and policy coherence

17.14 enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

17.15 respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technologies and financial resources to support the achievement of sustainable development goals in all countries, particularly developing countries

Pillar Two: Science, technology and innovation

2.a. Enhancing technological capacities for Africa’s transformative agenda

29. This will entail: enhancing the development, transfer and diffusion of technology and innovation in line with each country’s development needs; improving access to funding for home-grown technological innovations and to environmentally sound technologies; and strengthening the

science and technology component of education curricula. It is also important to concentrate our efforts on developing technological capacities by enhancing utilization of ICT in key social and economic sectors.

17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private, and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

IV. Enabling Implementation

Data, monitoring and accountability

 

17.18 by 2020, enhance capacity building support to developing countries, including for LDCs and SIDS, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

 

17.19 by 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity building in developing countries

 

 

2.d. Optimal utilization of space and geospatial technologies
32. This will requires increasing investments and promoting human resources development in the
management and deployment of space and geospatial technologies.

II/ SOME REMARKS ON THE DRAFTING PROCESS OF SDGs INDICATORS

It is important to stress the necessity to have good indicators to track progress throughout the implementation of the new agenda.

One of the issues that arise during the March intergovernmental negotiations on Goals and targets was about the process of indicators development for the post-2015 agenda. A sample of proposed indicators was sent by the UN Statistics Commission to countries to test their feasibility, suitability and relevance.

 

Examples of proposed indicators:

 

Goal 5 : Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Target 5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.

Indicator 5.1.1 Whether or not legal frameworks discriminate against women and girls, as identified by the CEDAW committee (BBB)

Indicator 5.1.2 Whether or not inheritance rights discriminate against women and girls (BBB)

Target 5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.

Indicator 5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls (aged 15-49) subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the last 12 months (BAA)

Indicator 5.2.2 Proportion of women and girls (aged 15-49) subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, since age 15. (BAA)

Target 5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.

Indicator 5.3.1 Percentage of women aged 20-24 who were married or in a union before age 18 (i.e. child marriage) (AAA)

Indicator 5.3.2 Percentage of girls and women aged 15-49 years who have undergone FGM/C, by age group (for relevant countries only) (CBB)

 

I am sharing these examples to call on us to engage actively in the process of indicators development to ensure that it is not too vague and irrelevant; And also to follow up the implementation process in our countries. There is an Africa proposal for the SDG-Indicators being developed at a meeting convened in Algiers.

 

I think we could also start documenting the situation we work on so as to have baseline reference data to showcase progress or regress made in the implementation of the post 2015 agenda. It is also important that we strategize on how to do this at regional or continental levels. It is great that the UN Women report did provide us with some data.

 

III/ AFRICAN GOVERMENTS AND THE POST 2015 Inter-Governmental Negotiations

While the post 2015 process offer a great opportunity to participate and influence the next development Agenda, many African countries and even sub-regional institutions are not taking very strong positions in the debate.

I think CSOs and women’s rights organizations need to engage more actively both at national and regional levels with governments and regional institutions (as Women Major Groups and the Post 2015 Women Coalition does at global level) to push for our priorities.

We (ROFAF) have learned from our advocacy efforts that many governments do welcome our contributions and some of them did take concrete actions based on our recommendations in the Open Letter we sent to them in October/November. For example, The Gender and Planning Ministries of Democratic Republic of Congo on the instructions of their Prime Minister launched a national Campaign on post 2015 and our local partner in DRC told us that the great majority of information that is been shared about gender are related to our post activities (the information Days on Gender in the Post 2015 Development Agenda, the Open Letter to African Heads of Governments, our Response to the Secretary General Synthesis Report). They initiate this campaign because we asked Head of Governments “to initiate awareness raising campaign in each country to inform and mobilize their citizens around the post 2015 process?.

The Gender Ministry inn Togo and the special advisor of the Niger Prime Minister got back to us to seek additional information on some of our recommendation including the reasons why we are asking that they reject any renegotiation of the Open Working Group Sustainable Development Goals

Some of the experts that helped draft government position papers during this negotiation process told us that they find very useful our positions papers.

I am sharing these examples to show that there lot of advocacy work that we need to do to push for our ideas and also an openness from some African governments/Ministries to listen to us. We need to seek ways to engage with them (bearing in mind that Ministries of Gender in our countries are not sometimes consulted nor associated when our countries are taking important positions on development issues. In Mali, DRC and Togo, they were not aware of nor associated with the post2015 processes which is being led by the Ministries in charge of development planning.

CONCLUSION

These are the agreed Africa regional priorities expressed in the Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda.

The major difficulties of our countries now that we need to follow up closely and advocate for, is to ensure that these directives are integrated into national plans and programmes (especially middle and long term ones which have already started being implemented).

The major barriers to our engagement are:

  • access to Information
  • lack of Resources
  • And language for some countries (most information are only available in English)

 

A travers cette section, le ROFAF aimerait informer son audience sur les différents processus en cours pour l’élaboration du nouveau cadre de développement pour l’Après 2015, les actions de mobilisation et de plaidoyer entreprises pour les droits des femmes ainsi que les différentes possibilités d’engagement qui existent encore. En savoir plus


genre et conflits

L’objectif de cette plateforme est de rassembler en un seul endroit, les informations disponibles sur cette thématique afin de les rendre facilement accessibles aux militantes et organisations francophones des droits des femmes. Cliquer ici.

FEMMES ET LEADERSHIP

Qu’est-ce que le leadership? Quels sont les obstacles que rencontrent les femmes leaders? Qui sont ces femmes qui ont réussi à avoir des carrières politiques? Qu’est-ce qui a été fait à ce jour pour accroître la présence des femmes dans les sphères de prise de décision? Que reste-il à faire? Quelles nouvelles initiatives développées? Quelles stratégies réinventées? En savoir plus